“Better Things” Tells an Important Trans Story — By Not Telling a Trans Story

It was December 2016, I was about to turn 23, and if you told me I was trans I wouldn’t have believed you.

I was listening to an interview with Pamela Adlon on my favorite podcast, Aisha Harris’ Represent — a Slate podcast about representation in media. Adlon was discussing her new show, Better Things, which had just finished its first season. In the finale, Adlon’s character Sam navigates her middle daughter Frankie getting sent home from school for using the men’s room.

“She’s not identifying shit,” Adlon said. “She’s 12-years-old. So she’s just dressing like Buster Keaton and she’s got short hair.”

Adlon went on to explain that the actress, Hannah Alligood, was nothing like Frankie. She had to work hard to capture her voice, body language, and energy.

Being a good ally, I was disappointed by Adlon’s answer and this information about Alligood. I knew trans characters should be played by trans actors. And I knew trans people were certain of their transness long before they turned 12.

I was right about only one of those things. Exactly five months later I’d come out to myself for the very first time.

The next two years Better Things joined shows like Transparent and One Day at a Time — shows I adored but that carried an asterisk for casting a cis actor as their most prominent trans character. Like those shows, Better Things cast trans actors in other parts — notably Jen Richards and Ser Anzoategui — and, additionally, had a trans editor, Debra F. Simone. But that asterisk still existed.

It felt like such a shame, because Better Things was otherwise a remarkable show. From the beginning, people framed it as a sort of female version of Louie — Louis C.K. was Adlon’s long-time collaborator and co-created her show. This, of course, provides another asterisk, but I don’t blame women for the abusive men in their lives, and artistically I think this comparison is limited. Yes, they’re both semi-autobiographical dramedies with surrealist touches. But the former show’s bawdy mean-streak is replaced here with wit and warmth. Better Things may in fact be the female version of Louie, but only if male and female are played out to their most basic cultural extremes.

Better Things captures mother/daughter relationships with a striking specificity. Frankie, her older sister Max, and even her younger sister Duke can all be nightmares like teenagers are prone to be. But Sam meets them with an imperfect patience — it’s imperfect, because she’s not a saint, it’s still patience, because she leads with love. This is a show where Sam and Max can angrily shout “cunt” at each other before bursting into laughter. There’s so much screaming. There’s so much trying. It’s all so painful and tender.

The season three finale featured one of the show’s most brutal conflicts. Frankie leaves home and completely shuts Sam out. Sam desperately wants to be there for her child, but Frankie responds with increasing cruelty. She chooses instead to spend time with the character played by Ser Anzoategui. It seemed as if the show was finally going to do what I’d feared for two years — they were going to solidify Frankie’s transness.

We see Duke get a text from Frankie that refers to herself as “your brother, Francis” and Anzoategui’s character tells Sam how difficult they were on their mom when first transitioning.

This episode works, because it’s not about Frankie — it’s about Sam. She’s trying to be there for her child and she’s not able to be. We see growth from the season one finale when she met Frankie’s suspension with annoyance. It took Max explicitly saying, “Mom, Frankie is a boy.” Only then did the possible reality start to settle in. But now it’s settled and she still isn’t who her child turns to for support. It’s complicated and painful and ultimately hopeful — that’s what the show does best.

But despite this episode’s success, I went into the fourth season filled with dread. I didn’t want to see a transition story — not with an all cis writing staff, not with Alligood in this part. What I really mean is I didn’t want to see a conventional transition story. Luckily, Better Things has never been conventional.

Season four starts with Sam picking up Frankie and Duke from the airport after a visit with their father. The tension from the previous season seems to have subsided. Frankie’s appearance has moved one notch femme on the masc spectrum.

She asks her mom if she can have a quinceañera since she’s about to turn 15. She never had a Bat Mitzvah — her culturally appropriate entry into womanhood — and now it’s too late. It seems as if the show is dropping everything it built in the previous season. Once again Sam just has daughters. Once again they’re just the girls. Frankie even wants to celebrate her womanhood.

Sam walks in on Frankie in bed with a boy. Confusing sexuality and gender like a cishet mother might, she says to Max, “I thought you said Frankie was a boy.” Max quickly dismisses her.

I started to wonder if someone had talked to Adlon and told her to drop this storyline. I felt relieved, but also saddened by this supposed dequeering of Frankie. But shifting this storyline doesn’t mean Frankie isn’t queer or even trans. It’s just allowing the storyline to be messier than we’re used to seeing.

Because discussion around trans youth is still so fraught, the stakes can sometimes feel too high for complexity. It can feel like the only responsible story is one where a trans teen is certain of their identity and is allowed to transition. But that’s not the experience of so many kids both trans and cis.

This show is about Sam and through Sam we see a model for how parents should behave regardless of their child’s future labels. After Max tells Sam that Frankie is a boy, Sam goes into Frankie’s bedroom and comforts her. She spends the next two seasons letting Frankie dress and act the way she wants. She even comes to terms with Frankie’s absence at the end of season three.

She insists on talking to Frankie about the boy in her bed, but she let’s Frankie approach her on her own terms — even when those terms involve holding pillows in front of their faces during the discussion. Frankie says she just wanted to get it out of the way. She says she doesn’t want to do it again for a while. She says it felt clinical. Sam just asks if Frankie is okay — and if she can take her back to the gynecologist.

Frankie’s labels don’t matter. What matters is that Sam is there for her child. What matters is that she helps Frankie navigate her identity on her own without pressure. One day Frankie is a boy, the next she’s a girl and having sex with a boy. Someday she might be a boy having sex with a girl. Sam doesn’t get to control that. She can only control how she responds. She can choose unconditional love.

Frankie does end up having a “Batceañera.” She wears a men’s suit based on something worn by Frida Kahlo. She’s also wearing lipstick.

Towards the end of the party, Sam walks by Frankie at the top of the stairs holding some girl’s hand. Sam just makes a face. She will truly never be able to predict her children. Later she sees Frankie and the girl again, this time even more intimate — Frankie’s hand is on the girl’s thigh, she leans over and whispers something in the girl’s ear.

It’s obvious that Frankie is queer. We don’t know what that means for her and neither does Sam and that’s okay. Some 15-year-olds know exactly how they want to be identified and those children should be listened to and trusted. But a lot of 15-year-olds aren’t sure. They should be listened to and trusted also.

During the Represent interview Adlon shared that Frankie is based on her own child:

“My middle daughter went through a phase where she was gender dysphoric. It was not tomboy — it was Target boys department corduroys, Polo shirts, braces, bifocals… She was just that. Now she looks at pictures and she’s pissed at me. She’s like, Mom why did you let me. I’m like, I was letting you be the thing you were being!”

Every parent should let their kid be the thing they are being. I’m grateful that’s the story Adlon chose to tell.

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Drew Burnett Gregory

Drew is a Brooklyn-based writer, filmmaker, and theatremaker. She is a Senior Editor at Autostraddle with a focus in film and television, sex and dating, and politics. Her writing can also be found at Bright Wall/Dark Room, Cosmopolitan UK, Refinery29, Into, them, and Knock LA. She was a 2022 Outfest Screenwriting Lab Notable Writer and a 2023 Lambda Literary Screenwriting Fellow. She is currently working on a million film and TV projects mostly about queer trans women. Find her on Twitter and Instagram.

Drew Burnett has written 547 articles for us.


  1. Wow yes. I am so innundated by transphobes who dont want to let children transition that it’s easy to take the “opposite” tack and I can forget the real stories of loved ones who had trans or trans adjacent experiences as youngsters which ended up shifting into something else. How easy for me to forget that just like the rest of us kiddos get to be gender fluid and uncertain too and they are deserving of support in that.

  2. Really love this review & commentary. I’ve been thinking about this show and Frankie a lot, and I came to the same conclusion as you. There’s something almost magical about the way this show just lets that kid /be/, like, a fantasy of youth that I never had.

    And I don’t mean that to sound bitter or resentful or even regretful – it’s just, I remember being that kid, internally, and never getting to externalize it. And now, as an almost 30 year old, I’m left wondering what it all meant and still means. Is what I felt (and still feel) gender dysphoria? Does that mean I’m trans (asking myself once a day) even though I don’t think so? But then why did my family – like Frankie’s family in the early seasons – suspect (in fear) that I was trans as a kid? Doesn’t that mean something? Is all this confusion just the side effect of repressing gender/queerness for my entire life, as if it was something I missed out on? And what does it mean for my gender (expression) now? Am I just settling or am I just fine? Is what I dreamed of as a kid – being the Frankie – is that my “true self” or is that just youthful androgyny I’ve outgrown despite never having lived it?

    Thinking about that, this not-knowing, this non-experience – that brings me back to someone like Frankie, who does explore all these things, from a camera angle that is insistingly non-judgmental and patient. She gets to navigate herself, like you said, without pressure, like a 15 year old that is trusted to be the thing they are being – and maybe that’s how, in turn, one also learns to trust oneself. That is such a fantasy to me, but it’s also a vision, and hopefully, the future.

    It’s teaching me to let go of this… trepidation about where they’ll take this storyline about Frankie – a tug of war that I must admit I feel sometimes when it comes to “tomboy” characters in media, because it always feels so personal, so reflective of myself. But maybe that’s why the portrayal of this character feels so organic, because it shows queerness and gender variance without wanting to assign meaning to it. Just like real life doesn’t have a narrative that retroactively makes all past experiences feel significant one way or the other.

    So despite my usual impulses to want clarity from representation on tv, I’m really grateful that this is the story that’s being told over the course of 4 years now. For me it really has been a lesson in just being, and just letting be.

    • Thank you for this beautiful comment. I’m so glad the show resonated with you in this way. <3

  3. Yeah I think your whole article goes against the very thing you claim to be “trying” and failing, miserably to represent. Not only did you not even experience these things when you were young, you blatantly label Alligood’s character, Frankie, as well as identify Frankie as “she” when speaking about Frankie identifying as a man over and over again. As for this whole bs world that non-trans, straight playing gay etc not being ok. Enough. Should gays not be able to “ACT” as str8s?! So over this double standard, and overly selfish ME, ME, ME, world you totally clueless…oh I know: FRANKIE’S of the World. You all need to take a beat, and show some respect for the true hardships that those that came before you endured. Be who you want to be, yes, that was the point of us going through real hell before you. To pave the way to make it easier. And I know, it’s still not easy. Maybe it never will be. However, your arrogant, ignorant comments like that which you wrote above, does not show strength and courage. It shows exactly what we fought against manafesting itself in a new uglier way. Check yourself, recognize allies and friends. Stop hating just to be heard and because you think it empowers you/us. You’re doing nothing but weakening and destroying the hard work achieved through literally blood, sweat, tears, and often death, horribly, before you. Stop meeting hate with more and worse – in my mind’s eye – which is the perpetuation of- and retaliatory- hate. You aren’t all seeing and knowing. And if anyone sounds transphobic or fake or ignorant or wrong here, I’m sorry but it’s you. I can’t anymore with these (your) new generations’ diluted concepts of what’s “right and wrong”. You’re not helping, you’re as bad as the rednecks and white trash that called me faggot and beat me up everyday.

    Do me a favor and go look up the definition of “empowerment”. Then do/write the opposite of the trash you wrote above thinking you were enacting it for us.

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